- Description of Siberia
- Population history
- Native people
- Peoples of Western Siberia
- The population of Eastern Siberia
Siberia occupies a vast geographical area of Russia. Once it included such neighboring states as Mongolia, Kazakhstan and part of China. Today this territory belongs exclusively to the Russian Federation. Despite the huge area, there are relatively few settlements in Siberia. Most of the region is occupied by tundra and steppe.
Description of Siberia
The whole territory is divided into Eastern and Western regions. In rare cases, theologians determine the Southern region, which is the highlands of Altai. The area of Siberia is about 12.6 million square meters. km This is approximately 73.5% of the total territory of the Russian Federation. Interestingly, Siberia is more in area than Canada.
Among the main natural zones, in addition to the Eastern and Western regions, the Baikal Region and the Altai Mountains are distinguished. The largest rivers are the Yenisei, Irtysh, Angara, Ob, Amur and Lena. The most significant lake areas are Taimyr, Baikal and Ubsu-Nur.
From an economic point of view, such centers as Novosibirsk, Tyumen, Omsk, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Ulan-Ude, Tomsk, etc. can be called the centers of the region.
The highest peak of Siberia is Belukha Mountain - over 4.5 thousand meters.
Historians call the Samodian tribes the first inhabitants of the region. This nation lived in the northern part. Due to the harsh climate, reindeer herding was the only occupation. Ate mostly fish from the surrounding lakes and rivers. The Mansi people lived in the southern part of Siberia. Their favorite business was hunting. Mansi traded fur, which was highly valued by western merchants.
Turks are another significant population of Siberia. They lived in the upper reaches of the Ob River. Engaged in blacksmithing and animal husbandry. Many tribes of the Turks were nomadic. A little to the west of the mouth of the Ob lived Buryats. They became famous for mining and processing of iron.
The most numerous ancient population of Siberia was represented by the Tungus tribes. They settled in the territory from the Sea of Okhotsk to the Yenisei. They earned their living by reindeer herding, hunting and fishing. More prosperous were engaged in craft.
Thousands of Eskimos were located on the coast of the Chukchi Sea. These tribes for a long time had the slowest cultural and social development. Their only tools are the stone ax and the spear. Engaged mainly in hunting and gathering.
In the 17th century, there was a sharp jump in the development of the Yakuts and Buryats, as well as the northern Tatars.
The population of Siberia today are dozens of peoples. Each of them, according to the Constitution of Russia, has its right to national identification. Many peoples of the Northern region even gained autonomy within the Russian Federation with all the ensuing branches of self-government. This contributed not only to the lightning development of the culture and economy of the region, but also to the preservation of local traditions and customs.
The indigenous population of Siberia consists mostly of Yakuts. Their number varies within 480 thousand people. Most of the population is concentrated in the city of Yakutsk - the capital of Yakutia.
The next largest people are the Buryats. There are more than 460 thousand people. The capital of Buryatia is the city of Ulan-Ude. The main property of the republic is Lake Baikal. It is interesting that this particular region is recognized as one of the main Buddhist centers of Russia.
Tuvans - the population of Siberia, which according to the last census totals about 264 thousand people. In the Republic of Tuva, shamans are still revered.
Practically equally divided the population of such peoples as the Altai and the Khakas: 72 thousand people each. The indigenous people of the districts are Buddhist.
The Nenets population has only 45 thousand people. They live on the Kola Peninsula. Throughout its history, the Nenets were famous nomads. Today, their priority earnings is reindeer herding.
Such peoples as Evenki, Chukchi, Khanty, Shor, Mansi, Koryak, Selkup, Nanai, Tatars, Chuvans, Teleuts, Kets, Aleuts and many others also live on the territory of Siberia. Each of them has its centuries-old traditions and legends.
The dynamics of the demographic component of the region fluctuates significantly every few years. This is due to the mass relocation of young people to the southern cities of Russia and sharp jumps in the birth rate and death rate. There are relatively few immigrants in Siberia. The reason for this is the harsh climate and the specific conditions for living in the villages.
According to the latest data, the population of Siberia is about 40 million people. This is more than 27% of the total number of people living in Russia. By region, the population is distributed evenly. In the northern part of Siberia, large settlements are absent due to poor living conditions. On average, one person here accounts for 0.5 square meters. km of land.
The most densely populated cities are Novosibirsk and Omsk - 1.57 and 1.05 million inhabitants, respectively. Further, according to this criterion, Krasnoyarsk, Tyumen and Barnaul are located.
Peoples of Western Siberia
Cities account for about 71% of the total number of the region. Most of the population is concentrated in the Kemerovo and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Districts. Nevertheless, the agricultural center of the Western Region is considered the Altai Republic. It is noteworthy that the Kemerovo District ranks first in population density - 32 people / sq. km
The population of Western Siberia by 50% consists of able-bodied residents. Most employment is in industry and agriculture.
The region has one of the lowest unemployment rates in the country, with the exception of Tomsk Oblast and Khanty-Mansiysk.
Today, the population of Western Siberia is Russians, Khanty, Nenets, Turks. By religion there are Orthodox, Muslims and Buddhists.
The population of Eastern Siberia
The proportion of urban residents varies within 72%. The most economically developed are the Krasnoyarsk Territory and the Irkutsk Region. From the point of view of agriculture, the Buryat district is considered the most important point of the region.
Every year the population of Eastern Siberia is getting smaller. Recently, there has been a sharp negative dynamics of migration and fertility. Also here is the lowest population density in the country. In some areas, it is 33 square meters. km per person. The unemployment rate is high.
The ethnic composition includes such peoples as the Mongols, Turks, Russians, Buryats, Evenks, Dolgans, Kets, etc. Most of the population is Orthodox and Buddhists.